Advanced CSS Techniques for Web Designers

Advanced CSS Techniques for Web Designers

As a web designer, you’re likely familiar with the basics of CSS. But to truly excel in this field, you need to understand and utilise advanced CSS techniques. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the world of advanced CSS, providing you with the knowledge and tools to take your web designs to the next level. Whether you’re a company director, a marketing manager, a small business owner, or someone looking to start a new business, this guide will prove invaluable.

Understanding CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a stylesheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in HTML. CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript. It allows web designers to separate content from design, giving them greater control over the layout, colours, fonts, and more.

Why Advanced CSS Techniques Matter

Advanced CSS techniques allow web designers to create more complex, interactive, and visually appealing websites. They can help to improve user experience, increase engagement, and ultimately drive more traffic and conversions. For businesses in Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield, Mansfield, Newark, and beyond, mastering advanced CSS techniques can give you a competitive edge in the digital marketplace.

Advanced CSS Techniques

Now, let’s delve into some of the most powerful advanced CSS techniques that every web designer should know.


The Flexible Box Layout Module, or Flexbox, is a one-dimensional layout model that offers a more efficient way to align and distribute space among items in a container. It can handle both horizontal and vertical layouts, and it’s particularly useful when you want to create a responsive design.

Learn more about Flexbox CSS Techniques

Grid Layout

The CSS Grid Layout is a two-dimensional layout system that’s ideal for creating complex web designs. It allows you to position elements in rows and columns, and it’s incredibly flexible and powerful. With Grid Layout, you can create virtually any design you can imagine.

Learn more about CSS Grid Layout Techniques

Custom Properties (CSS Variables)

Custom properties, also known as CSS variables, allow you to store specific values for reuse throughout your stylesheet. This can make your CSS more readable and maintainable, and it can also help to reduce repetition and complexity.

Learn more about CSS variables

CSS Animation

CSS animations can add a dynamic and interactive element to your web designs. They can be used to create transitions, transformations, and keyframe animations, allowing you to bring your designs to life.

Learn more about CSS animations

Media Queries

Media queries are a key component of responsive web design. They allow you to apply different styles depending on the characteristics of the device on which your website is being viewed, such as its screen size, resolution, or orientation.

Learn more about media queries

Implementing Advanced CSS Techniques

Implementing these advanced CSS techniques requires a solid understanding of CSS and a willingness to experiment and learn. Here at Chatsworth Media, we offer a range of web design services, including advanced CSS techniques, to help businesses in Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield, Mansfield, Newark, and beyond to create stunning, effective websites.

Examples & Guides


What is Flexbox?

Flexbox, short for Flexible Box Module, is a layout model that provides a more efficient way to lay out, align, and distribute space among items in a container, even when their size is unknown. Flexbox is designed to provide a more fluid approach to page layout on the web, making it an excellent choice for responsive design.

Basics of Flexbox

To start using Flexbox, you first need to define a Flex container. This is done by setting an element’s display property to flex or inline-flex. Immediately, all direct children of that container become flex items.

.container { display: flex; }

Main Axes and Cross Axes

Flexbox revolves around two axes: the main axis and the cross axis. The main axis is defined by the flex-direction property, which can be set to row, row-reverse, column, or column-reverse. The cross axis runs perpendicular to the main axis.

.container { display: flex; flex-direction: row; /* Default direction */ }

.container { display: flex; flex-direction: row; /* Default direction */ }

Justifying Content

The justify-content property aligns flex items along the main axis and can be set to values like flex-start, flex-end, center, space-between, space-around, and space-evenly, allowing for various alignment and spacing options.

.container { display: flex; justify-content: center; /* Aligns items in the center of the container */ }

Aligning Items

To align items along the cross axis, use the align-items property. It accepts values such as flex-start, flex-end, center, baseline, and stretch.

.container { display: flex; align-items: center; /* Aligns items in the center of the container along the cross axis */ }

Flex Items

Flex items themselves can also be adjusted using various properties:

flex-grow: Defines how much a flex item will grow relative to the rest of the flex items.

flex-shrink: Determines how a flex item will shrink relative to others.

flex-basis: Sets the initial main size of a flex item.

These properties can be combined using the flex shorthand.

.item { flex: 1 1 auto; /* flex-grow, flex-shrink, flex-basis */ }

Wrapping Items

When flex items overflow the container, you can use the flex-wrap property to control their wrap: nowrap (default), wrap, or wrap-reverse.

.container { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; /* Wraps items to the next line */ }

Flexbox and Responsive Design

Flexbox is incredibly useful for responsive design. By combining media queries with flex properties, you can create layouts that adapt seamlessly to various screen sizes without the need for fixed dimensions.

CSS Grid Layout

CSS Grid Layout, often simply referred to as Grid, is a powerful layout system available in CSS. It allows developers to create complex responsive web layouts more easily and consistently across browsers. Grid Layout provides a two-dimensional grid-based layout system, enabling precise layout arrangements and alignments both vertically and horizontally. This tutorial will guide you through the basics of using CSS Grid Layout to enhance your web design skills with this robust tool.

What is CSS Grid Layout?

CSS Grid Layout is a layout model that allows for the design of complex web pages by defining columns, rows, and areas within a container. It’s particularly useful for arranging elements in two dimensions—height and width, which distinguishes it from Flexbox, more suited for one-dimensional layouts.

Getting Started with Grid

To use CSS Grid, you first need to define a Grid container. This involves setting an element’s display property to grid or inline-grid. Upon doing this, all direct children of the container become grid items.

.container { display: grid; }

Defining Columns and Rows

With Grid, you explicitly set the layout’s columns and rows using the grid-template-columns and grid-template-rows properties. You can specify the size of the columns and rows in various units, such as pixels, percentages, or the flexible fr unit.

.container { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 2fr 1fr; /* Creates three columns with the middle column twice as wide as the others */ grid-template-rows: 100px 200px; /* Creates two rows with specified heights */ }

Placing Items

Grid items can be placed in specific cells or span multiple cells. Use the grid-column and grid-row properties to define where items should be placed within the grid.

.item { grid-column: 1 / 3; /* Spans from the first line to the third line of the grid column */ grid-row: 1; /* Occupies the first row */ }

Gap Between Items

The gap property (previously grid-gap) allows you to set the space between grid items. You can specify both row and column gaps.

.container { display: grid; gap: 20px; /* Sets the gap between rows and columns to 20px */ }

Aligning and Justifying Items

To align items vertically, use the align-items property. For horizontal alignment, use justify-items. Both properties can be set to start, end, center, or stretch.

.container { display: grid; align-items: center; /* Vertically aligns items in their cells */ justify-items: center; /* Horizontally aligns items in their cells */ }

Creating Complex Layouts

Grid’s power lies in its ability to create complex layouts easily. You can define areas in your grid using grid-template-areas and place items by referencing these names.

.container { display: grid; grid-template-areas: "header header header" "sidebar content content" "footer footer footer"; } .header { grid-area: header; } .sidebar { grid-area: sidebar; } .content { grid-area: content; } .footer { grid-area: footer; }

Responsive Design with Grid

Grid Layout works wonderfully for responsive design. Using media queries in conjunction with Grid properties allows you to adapt your layout to different screen sizes easily.

How To Use CSS Variables

CSS Variables, also known as Custom Properties, are a powerful feature in CSS that allow you to define reusable values in your stylesheets. This feature enhances maintainability, readability, and reusability of CSS code by letting you set values in one place and then reference them throughout the stylesheet. This tutorial will walk you through the basics of using CSS Variables to make your styling more efficient and your workflows more streamlined.

What are CSS Variables?

CSS Variables allow you to store specific values, like colors, font sizes, or margins, which you can then reuse throughout your CSS document. Unlike preprocessor variables (such as those in SASS or LESS), CSS Variables are part of the CSS specification and can be manipulated in real-time through JavaScript.

Defining CSS Variables

You define CSS Variables within a selector by prefixing the property name with two dashes (e.g., --main-color). The most common approach is to define your variables within the :root pseudo-class. This makes them globally available across your stylesheet.

:root { --main-color: #3498db; --padding: 20px; }

Using CSS Variables

Once you’ve defined your variables, you can use them anywhere in your CSS by wrapping the variable name in a var() function.

.container { background-color: var(--main-color); padding: var(--padding); }

Advantages of CSS Variables

  • Maintainability: Change a variable in one place, and the update applies wherever the variable is used.
  • Flexibility: Variables can be redefined in different scopes. For example, you could change the --main-color variable inside a media query or within a specific class to alter the look on different screen sizes or when a certain class is applied.
  • Dynamic Manipulation: CSS Variables can be changed at runtime with JavaScript, enabling dynamic theming and styling adjustments on the fly.

Scoping CSS Variables

Variables are scoped to the element they are defined on, meaning they can be accessed by any descendant of that element. This allows for local overrides by redefining variables within specific selectors.

:root { --text-color: black; } .dark-theme { --text-color: white; } /* Text color will be white within elements with the .dark-theme class */ .dark-theme p { color: var(--text-color); }

Manipulating CSS Variables with JavaScript

One of the most powerful aspects of CSS Variables is their ability to be manipulated in real-time using JavaScript. This makes it easy to create dynamic themes or respond to user interactions without reloading the page.'--main-color', '#e74c3c');

Fallback Values

The var() function allows you to specify a fallback value, which is used if the given variable is not defined. This is particularly useful for ensuring that your site remains usable even if a variable is missed.

.container { color: var(--custom-color, black); }

CSS Variables revolutionize how we write and maintain our stylesheets, making our code more modular and easier to manage. By leveraging this powerful feature, developers can create more dynamic, adaptable, and maintainable websites. Whether you’re managing themes, adjusting layouts based on user input, or just trying to keep your color palette consistent, CSS Variables offer a modern solution to age-old CSS challenges.

How To Use CSS Animations

CSS Animations are a robust feature of CSS that allow you to create motion and interaction within your web pages. They enhance user experience by providing visual feedback, guiding attention, and making interfaces feel more dynamic and alive. This tutorial will introduce you to the basics of creating animations with CSS, covering key concepts and techniques to get you started on incorporating animations into your web projects.

Understanding CSS Animations

CSS Animations extend beyond the simpler :hover effects and transitions, allowing for more control over the animation sequence. They involve defining keyframes (the stages of the animation) and applying these animations to HTML elements.

Key Concepts of CSS Animations

  • @keyframes Rule: This at-rule defines the sequence of the animation from start to end by specifying styles at various points during the animation timeline.
  • Animation Properties: CSS provides several properties to control animations, including animation-name, animation-duration, animation-timing-function, animation-delay, animation-iteration-count, animation-direction, animation-fill-mode, and animation-play-state.

Creating Your First Animation

  1. Define the Keyframes: Start by creating a @keyframes rule that describes the animation. Give it a name and define what happens at key points during the animation.
@keyframes slidein { from { transform: translateX(0%); } to { transform: translateX(100%); } }
  1. Apply the Animation: Use the animation shorthand property on the element you want to animate, specifying at least the name of the keyframes and the duration of the animation.
.box { animation: slidein 3s ease-in-out; }

Exploring Animation Properties

  • Duration and Timing: animation-duration controls how long the animation runs, while animation-timing-function specifies the speed curve of the animation (e.g., linear, ease-in, ease-out, ease-in-out).
  • Delay and Iteration: animation-delay sets a delay before the animation starts, and animation-iteration-count defines how many times the animation repeats.
  • Direction and Fill Mode: animation-direction controls whether the animation runs forwards, backwards, or alternates, and animation-fill-mode specifies how a CSS property is applied before and after the animation.

Practical Example: A Simple Fade-in Animation

Let’s create a simple fade-in animation that makes an element gradually appear on the screen.

  1. Define Keyframes for Fade-in:
@keyframes fadeIn { from { opacity: 0; } to { opacity: 1; } }
  1. Apply the Animation:
.fade-in-element { animation: fadeIn 2s ease-in-out; }

Combining Animations

You can apply multiple animations to an element by separating each animation shorthand declaration with a comma.

.element { animation: slidein 3s, fadeIn 2s; }

Responsive Animations

To ensure animations look great on all devices, consider using relative units like percentages or viewport units (vw, vh) and adapting the animation properties based on media queries.

CSS Animations offer a powerful way to add life and interactivity to your web pages, making them more engaging and visually appealing. By mastering keyframes and understanding the various animation properties, you can create a wide range of effects, from simple transitions to complex sequences of movement and transformations. Experiment with different properties and timing functions to achieve the desired effect and enhance the user experience of your web projects.

How To Use CSS Media Queries

CSS Media Queries are a pivotal feature in web development, allowing content to adapt to different conditions such as screen sizes, device orientations, and print formats. This capability is fundamental to creating responsive designs that work across a wide range of devices. This tutorial will introduce you to CSS Media Queries, showing you how to use them to make your websites more flexible and responsive.

What are CSS Media Queries?

Media Queries in CSS let you apply styles conditionally based on the viewport’s characteristics or the device rendering the content. They can check for many factors, including device width and height, orientation (portrait or landscape), resolution, and even color capabilities.

Basic Syntax of Media Queries

A media query is composed of a media type and can contain one or more expressions, which resolve to either true or false. The styles within a media query block are applied only if the media query returns true.

@media (min-width: 600px) { .container { width: 80%; } }

In this example, .container will have a width of 80% only on screen sizes wider than 600 pixels.

Common Uses of Media Queries

  1. Adapting Layouts to Screen Sizes: The most common use is to change layouts depending on the screen size, moving from a single-column layout on mobile devices to multiple columns on larger screens.
  2. Orientation: Adjusting styles based on whether the device is in portrait or landscape mode.
@media (orientation: landscape) { .container { flex-direction: row; } }
  1. Resolution: Serving higher-quality images or adjusting element sizes for devices with high-resolution screens.
@media (min-resolution: 2dppx) { .background-image { background-image: url('high-res.jpg'); } }

Combining Multiple Conditions

Media queries can combine multiple conditions using logical operators such as and, not, and , (the latter acting as an “or” operator).

@media (min-width: 600px) and (orientation: landscape) { .container { padding: 20px; } }

This applies padding to .container only on screens that are at least 600 pixels wide and in landscape orientation.

Using Media Queries for Responsiveness

Media queries are essential for creating responsive designs. Here’s a simple example of how you might adjust a layout based on screen width:

.container { width: 100%; } @media (min-width: 600px) { .container { width: 50%; } } @media (min-width: 1200px) { .container { width: 25%; } }

Best Practices

  • Mobile First: Start with styles for the smallest devices, then use media queries to progressively enhance the design for larger screens.
  • Use Relative Units: Use percentages, ems, or rems for widths to ensure flexibility.
  • Minimize Use of Exact Device Dimensions: Design for content rather than trying to target specific devices.

CSS Media Queries are a cornerstone of responsive web design, allowing developers to craft websites that adapt seamlessly across different devices and screen sizes. By using media queries, you can ensure your site offers an optimal viewing experience for all users, regardless of how they access it. As you become more familiar with media queries, you’ll find they offer a powerful way to enhance your designs, making them more flexible and user-friendly.


Advanced CSS techniques offer a powerful way to enhance your web designs, improve user experience, and stand out in the digital marketplace. By mastering techniques such as Flexbox, Grid Layout, custom properties, animation, and media queries, you can take your web designs to the next level. Whether you’re a company director, a marketing manager, a small business owner, or someone looking to start a new business, understanding and utilising advanced CSS techniques can give you a competitive edge.

At Chatsworth Media, we’re committed to helping businesses in Derby, Nottingham, Sheffield, Mansfield, Newark, and beyond to succeed in the digital world. We offer a range of web design, development, and digital marketing services, and we’re always here to help. If you’re ready to take your web designs to the next level, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us today.

For more information on our services, please visit our Web Design, SEO, and Digital Marketing pages. You can also view our Portfolio to see examples of our work, read Customer Reviews to hear what our clients have to say about us, or visit our Blog for more educational and informative content.

Thank you for choosing Chatsworth Media. We look forward to working with you.

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